如何使用「by」與「until」?別再讓介係詞困擾你!

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編輯/蕭譯婷

每個介係詞(preposition)都有許多種不同的用法,因此何時該用哪個介係詞、分別代表何種意思,總是讓人覺得如此糾結難解!

Engvid的講師Emma提出了「by」、「until」、「by the time」的不同用法,並用大量的實用例句與練習,訓練文法和語感,讓你之後在寫作文時不怕用錯介係詞啦!

1. Until / till (prep.) 直到……

Situation or event will continue up to a certain time. 會持續到某個特定時間的情況或事件。
e.g. I worked until 7 p.m. 我工作到晚上七點。
e.g. I can use my parents car until 5 p.m. 我可以使用我父母的車到下午五點。
e.g. We had to stay in the exam room until the end of the exam. 我們在考試結束之前都必須待在考試的教室裡。

2. By (prep.) 在……的時候、在……之前

Something will happen before or at a certain time. 某件事會在某個時刻(之前)發生。
e.g. I need to return my movie by January 12th. 我必須在一月十二日之前歸還電影的錄影帶。
e.g. I will finish my homework by 4 p.m. 我下午四點時會完成作業。
e.g. I will quit smoking by the summer. 我這個夏天會戒掉吸菸的。

3. By the time 到……的時候

We use this before a verb. 通常在動詞之前使用這個片語。
e.g. The subway was closed by the time I left work. 當我終於下班時,地下鐵已經關閉了。
e.g. The thief was gone by the time I called the police. 當我打給警察時,小偷已經跑了。

4. 練習

(1) I will stay at the party _______ midnight.
(2) I studied _______ 7 p.m.
(3) I will finish my essay _______ February.
(4) I will be at the restaurant ______ 8 p.m.

5. 解答

(1) Until
(2) Until
(3) By
(4) By/until

圖片來源:pixabay

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