英文 have had / has had / had had 用法與中文意思!看例句搞懂

英文 have had / has had / had had 用法與中文意思!看例句搞懂

英文 have had / has had / had had 的用法跟中文意思,你都知道了嗎?have had / has had / had had 常常會讓人搞不清楚用法,因為它們長得實在太像。不過其實它們非常好理解,前面兩個是現在完成式,最後一個則是過去完成式。

如果你也還不太清楚 have had / has had / had had 這三者之間的用法差異,別擔心,本篇文章會有完整的教學。

英文 have had / has had / had had 用法怎麼用?

下面會教學現在完成式 have had / has had,跟過去完成式 had had 的完整用法教學,趕快學起來吧。

1.have had / has had 現在完成式

我們都知道英文 have 是指「有、擁有」的意思,這是最基本的用法。完整用法可以參考下面 Have 用法完整教學。

另外 have 也可以當成使役動詞來用唷,使役動詞 have 的用法則可以參考下面文章。

那麼 have had 跟 has had 這樣子的句型呢?have had / has had 其實是現在完成式。

現在完成式表達的是,一直到現在這個時間點,已經完成的某件事。

英文現在完成式的結構:主詞+ have/has + Vp.p (動詞的過去分詞)

至於何時用 have + Vp.p,何時用 has + Vp.p,則取決於你的主詞,區分如下。

一、 I / We / You / They + have Vp.p ….
二、He / She / It + has Vp.p …

因此,have、has 其實是現在完成式裡所要使用的助動詞。

Have 的動詞三態分別是:have(現在式)-had(過去式)-had(過去分詞)。涵義上則包含「吃」、「喝」、「有」等意思。

也就是說,have had / has had 裡面的「have/has」是現在完成式裡面的助動詞;而 have had / has had 裡面的「had」則是 Have 的 Vp.p 型態。

例:
I have had my lunch already.
我已經吃過午餐了。

例:
I have had a great time with her.
我和她度過了一段美好時光。

例:
The boys have had a long friendship.
孩子們有很長的友誼。

例:
I have had a terrible headache for the last two days.
最近兩天頭疼得厲害。

2.had had 過去完成式

Had 是 have 的過去式,關於 had 的所有用法教學,你也可以參考下面文章。

剛剛提到現在完成式的結構為:主詞+ have/has + Vp.p (動詞的過去分詞)。

那麼 had had 呢?had had 其實是過去完成式的結構:主詞+ had + Vp.p (動詞的過去分詞)。

也就是說,had had 的前面的 had 是過去完成式裡面的助動詞,而後面的 had 則是 have 的 Vp.p。

過去完成式,無論主詞是誰,一律用 had。

例:
I / We / You / They / He / She / It + had Vp.p ….

過去完成式表達的是,到過去的某個時間點,已經完成的事情。

例:
I had had lunch.
我已經吃過午餐。

(上面是過去完成式,所以表達的是,在過去的某個時間點之前,我已經吃過午餐。)

例:
She had had three glasses of whisky already.
她已經喝了三杯威士忌了。

(在過去的某個時間點之前,她已經喝了三杯威士忌。)

3.現在完成式跟過去完成式,差在哪?

have had / has had 是現在完成式的句子結構,had had 則是過去完成式的句子結構。很多人一定會很好奇,它們差在哪?

其實它們表達的都是在某個時間之前,已經完成的某件事,差別只在於「時間點」的不同。

現在完成式,表達的是一直到「現在」這個時間為止,已經完成的某件事。而過去完成式表達的是,到「過去」的某個時間點,已經完成的某件事。

以下面例子說明:

例1:
I have had lunch.
我已經吃過午餐。

例2:
I had had lunch.
我已經吃過午餐。

第一個例子是指我已經吃過午餐了,隱含意思為我剛剛吃完午餐,而且一定是今天,因為是現在完成式。

第二個例子意思同樣是:我已經吃過午餐了,但是指的是過去的某個時間點,可能是昨天、前天、一個禮拜前,不一定是指今天。

也就是現在完成式,事情完成的時間點在「現在」,過去完成式,事情完成的時間點在「過去」。

上面就是 have had / has had / had had 用法教學啦!簡單的說,have had / has had 是現在完成式的句子結構,had had 是過去完成式的結構。

總結

1.have had / has had 的用法為現在完成式。

現在完成式的結構:主詞+ have/has + Vp.p (動詞的過去分詞)

何時用 have + Vp.p,何時用 has + Vp.p,則取決於你的主詞。

I / We / You / They + have + Vp.p ….
He / She / It + has + Vp.p …

2.had had 的用法為過去完成式

過去完成式的結構:主詞+ had + Vp.p (動詞的過去分詞)。無論主詞是誰,一律用 had。

I / We / You / They / He / She / It + had +Vp.p ….

3.現在完成式,事情完成的時間點在「現在」,過去完成式,事情完成的時間點在「過去」。

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