ROOTS 英文字根
alter 其他 alternate, alter ego
ami, amic- amiable, amicable
amphi 兩端或全部 amphibian
ann, enni anniversary, annual, biennial, perennial
anthrop 人,人 anthropology, anthropomorphic, misanthrope
aqua, aque aquatic, aquarium, aqueduct
arch 首長,領袖,統治者 archangel, monarch, archaic, archenemy
arthro 聯合 arthritis
aud 聲音 auditorium, audible, audiologist, audiotape
bell 戰爭 belligerent, bellicose
biblio bibliography, bibliophile
bio- 生活 biography, autobiography, biology, antibiotic
brev brief, abbreviate
cap 抓住 capture, captivate, capacity
carn carnivorous, chili con carne
ced 屈服 recede, secede, proceed, intercede, concession
chrom- 顏色 chromatic, monochrome, polychrome
chron- 時間 chronicle, chronology, chronometer, synchronize
cogn 知道 recognize, cognitive, incognito
cord/chord 臍帶 harpsichord
corp 身體 corpus, corpse, corporal
crac, crat 統治者 autocrat, democracy, bureaucrat, democracy
cred 相信 credible, credulous, credibility, credit, credo
cruc 交叉 crucifix, crucial
crusta 貝殼 crustacean
crypt cryptogram, cryptology, cryptic
culp 有罪 culpable, culprit
dei deity, deify
demo- demography, democracy, epidemic
dent dentist, dentifrice, dentin
derm- 皮膚 dermatology, epidermis, hypodermic
dic 說,說 dictate, predict, diction, indict
dox 信念,見解 orthodoxy, paradox, heterodoxy
duc, duct induce, deduce, seduction, conduct, abduct
duo duo
dynam- 功率 dynamo, hydrodynamics
ego egotist, egomania
equ 等於 equal, equity, equanimity, equate, equidistant
fac 做,做 manufacture, factory, benefactor
fil 螺紋狀 filament
frater 哥哥 fraternal, fraternize
gam- 婚姻 monogamy, polygamy, bigamy
geo- 地球 geopolitical, geology, geography, geothermal
glyph 垂直槽 Hieroglyphics—Egyptian “sky writing”
grad, gress gradual, progression, transgression
graph- 寫作,印刷 graphology, biography, telegraph, geography
gym gymnasium
gyn- 女人 gynecologist, androgynous
hemo, hema, hem 血液 hemophilia, hematology, hemoglobin
holo 整個,整個 holograph
hydro, hydr dehydrate, hydraulics, hydroelectric, hydroplane
iso 相等,相同 isolate
ject inject, reject, subject, projection
jud 法官 judicial, judge, adjudicate
leg, lect 閱讀,選擇 legible, lectern, lecturer, election
liter 信件 literature, illiterate, literal
loc 地點 local, location
log monologue, epilogue
luc lucid, elucidate
magn magnify, magnate, magnificent
man manufacture, manual, manuscript
mar marine, mariner
mater 母親 maternal, maternity, matriarchy, matricide
mere 部分,段 mere
meta, met 在後面,在之間 metacognition—behind the thinking
metri, meter- 測量 geometric, thermometer, odometer
min minority, minuscule, minute
mit, miss 發送 permit, submission, mission, emit,
mob, mot, mov 移動 mobile, automobile, motion, promote, movie
mon 警告 premonition, admonition
mor, mort 死亡 mortal, mortician, immortality
morph 形式,結構 metamorphosis, amorphous, morphology
mut 更改 mutant, mutability, mutate
neuro 神經 neurology, neurosis, neurobiology
nomen /nomin 名稱 nominal, nominate, nomenclature
nov novel, renovate, innovation, novella
nym, onym 單詞,名字 synonym, acronym, anonymous, pseudonym
odonto orthodontist—one who straightens teeth
ortho- 筆直,正確 orthodox, orthodontist, orthopedic
pac 和平 pacify, Pacific Ocean, pacifist
pater 父親 paternal, paternity, patricide, patrilineal, patriotic
path 感覺,痛苦 sympathy, apathy, empathy, telepathy, pathology
ped, pod 腳丫子 pedal, pedometer, centipede, gastropod
pel, puls pulsate, repulsive, impulse, compel, propel
pend 掛,稱重 pendulum, pendant, suspend, pending
phon-, phono- 聲音,聲音 telephone, euphony, cacophony, phonograph
plan 平面 planar, plantation, plane
pneum pneumatic
pod podiatrist
port 攜帶 portable, transport, portage, report,
pot 功率 potent, omnipotent, potentate
psych- 靈魂,精神,頭腦 psychology, psychic, psychobiography
pugna 鬥爭 pugnacious, pugilist
quer, quis query, inquisition,
scent, scend ascend, ascent
schizo, schiz 分裂,分裂 schizophrenic
sci 知道 scientific
sciss scissors
scrib, script manuscript, scribe, proscribe, scripture
sec, sect dissect, section
sed, sess sedentary, session
sens, sent 感覺,要注意 sensible, sentient
sequ, secu 跟隨 sequence, sequel, consecutive
serv 服務,保護 service
simil 相同 similar, assimilate, simile, facsimile (fax)
siphon siphon
sol 太陽 solar
son 聲音 sonar, resonate, unison
soph 智慧,知識 philosophy, sophisticated, sophomore (wise fool)
spec, spic 看,看 spectacles, spectator, inauspicious, prospect
spir 線圈 spiral
spir 呼吸 inspire, respiration, conspire, perspiration
spond, spons 答應,回答 respond, responsible
spont 靠自己的力量 spontaneous
stat 停留,位置 station
tang, tact 觸摸 tactile, tangible
temp 時間 temporary, temporize
ten, tent 保持 tentative, tenable, tenuous
terr 地球 subterranean, terrain, terrestrial, disinter
theo 神,神 theology, polytheism, atheist, monotheism
therm- thermal, thermos, thermometer
trophy 營養食品 atrophy—without nutrition
uro 尿 urologist
vac 空的 vacation, vacuum, vacuous, vacant
ven, vent 來,去 intervene, convene, contravene
ver 真相 veracity, verify, verity
vert introvert, irreversible, vertigo
vit 生活 vital, revitalize, vitamin
voc 呼叫 revoke, invocation, vocal, evocative, convocation
zoo 動物 zoo, zoology, zoolatry



a-, an- 沒有,沒有 amoral, anesthetic, apolitical, asocial
ab- 遠離 abduction, abstain, abnormal
ad- 往,往 adjoin, adjacent (lying near to)
ambi- ambidextrous, ambivalent
ana- 再次向上,向後 analogy, anatomy, anagram
anti- 反對 antipathy, antiwar, antisocial
apo- 從,遠離 apology, apologize
auto- autobiography, automobile, autocracy, automaton
bene- benediction benevolent benefactor
cata-, cat- 下來,反對 catastrophe–a turning down
centro, centri- 周圍,中心 concentric, centrifugal
circum- 周圍 circumlocution circumference, circumvent
com- 與在一起 communal, community
con- 與在一起 connect, confide conspire
contra- 反對 contradict, contravene
de- 往下走 descend, deject (cast down)
dia-, di- 貫穿 diameter, division
dis- 分開,不 disengage, discord, discomfort
dys- 病,困難,壞 dysfunctional, dysentery
e- 從,從 elect (choose out of), eject (throw out)
ecto- 在外面 ectoderm–outer skin
en-, em- empathy–feeling in
endo- 裡面,裡面 endoscope–instrument for observing inside
epi- 在…之上 epitaph epidermis, epicenter
eso- 內在 esoteric–more inward, esophagus
eu- 好,好 euthanasia–good death
ex- 從,從 exhume, exhale, exodus
hetero- 其他,不同 heterosexual, heterodoxy, heterodox heterogeneous
homo- 相同 homosexual, homogeneous, homogenized
hyper- 過度 hypertension, hypersensitive, hyperactivity
hypo- hypotension, hypodermic
il- illegitimate, illicit, illegal, illegible
im- imperfect, impolite, impossible
im- 進入 imbibe (drink in, take in)
in- indiscreet, invisible
in- 進入 incorporate (take into the body)
inter- 之間 intervene (come between), interstate
intra- intrastate, intramural
ir- irregular, irrational, irredeemable
macro- macrocosm, macroeconomics
mal, male- 壞,邪惡 malediction malevolent, malnutrition
meta- 超越 metaphysical
micro- microscope, microcosm, microeconomics
mono- 一,單 monologue, monotheism, monarchy, monogamy
neo- 新的,最近的 neologism, neo-liberal, neonatology. neolithic
ob- 反對 object, obstruct (build against)
palin-, pali- 再次回來 palindrome
pan- 所有,每個 pantheism, Pan-Hellenic, panorama, pandemic
para- paramilitary, paralegal, parachute
per- 通過 percolate (flow through) perforate (punch through)
peri- 周圍 perimeter, periscope
phil-, philo- 喜歡,情人 philosophy, Francophile, bibliophile, philanthropy
poly- 許多 polygon, polygamy, polytechnic, polytheism
post- postgraduate, posthumous postpone
pre- 之前 precede, predict (tell before)
pro- 對於,向前 promote, project
pros- 朝前 prospect—view in front, something coming up
proto- 第一 prototype, protoplasm, protobiology
pseudo pseudonym, pseudoscience
re- 再來一次 repeat, recede, regress (step back)
retro- 背部 retrogression, retroactive
se- 遠離 seduce (lead away), secede
sub- submarine, subject, subhuman subterranean
sur-, super- 結束,上方 superhuman, superego, superintend, surpass
syn-, sym-, syl-, sys- 與在一起 symphony, synonym, system, syllable
tele- 遙遠,遙遠 telephone, telepathy, television, telegram
trans- 跨越 transient, Transatlantic, transport (carry across)



-agog, -agogue 領導 demagogue, pedagogue
-cide 殺死 patricide, infanticide, herbicide. suicide
-ectomy 切割 appendectomy, splenectomy
-ia, -y 行動,陳述 amnesia, mania, democracy, anarchy
-ic, -tic, -ical, -ac 與…有關 anthropomorphic, dramatic, biblical, cardiac
-ics 與…有關 optics, physics
-isk, -iscus asterisk–a little star
-ism 相信 pacifism, terrorism, socialism, communism
-ist 一個相信的人 pacifist, terrorist, socialist, communist
-ite 一個與 meteorite, polite, cosmopolite
-logy 研究領域 biology, geology, etymology, cardiology
-oid 相似,形狀相似 asteroid, spheroid
-or, -er 一位參加 doctor, actor, teacher, driver
-phobia 誇張的恐懼 photophobia, claustrophobia, agoraphobia
-sis 行為,狀態,條件 analysis