Doughnuts: America’s Hole-some Treat
People around the world have been deep-frying dough for centuries, but the modern history of the doughnut begins in America. In the 17th century, Dutch settlers brought olykoeks—or “oily cakes”—with them to New Amsterdam, which later became New York. Because these sweet balls of deep-fried dough were about the shape and size of walnuts, Americans started calling the “dough nuts.”
But it wasn’t until the 1800s that doughnuts got their hole. A sea captain named Hanson Gregory began poking holes in doughnuts so he could put them on the spokes of the ship’s wheel and eat them when he got hungry on a long shift. He later asked his mother to make doughnuts with holes, and because they tasted better—the hole made them cook more evenly—the new recipe soon spread. By the time of the First World War, doughnuts were such a popular treat that Salvation Army volunteers, known as Doughnut Girls, handed out coffee and doughnuts to American soldiers in France to give them a taste of home. And with the invention of the automatic doughnut machine in the 1920s, doughnuts became an everyday snack that everybody could afford. Doughnut chains like Dunkin’ Donuts, Krispy Kreme and Mister Donut spread across the country in the 1940s and ’50s, and today Americans eat 10 billion doughnuts a year!
In the early days, most doughnuts were simple yeast-raised rings with a sugar glaze. But as demand increased, so did variety. First came cake doughnuts, then filled doughnuts and crullers. These days, you can get doughnuts with just about any glaze, topping or filling imaginable. Walk into any doughnut shop, and you’ll have dozens of choices. And boutique doughnut makers like Portland’s Voodoo Doughnut are coming up with new flavors all the time. How about a Nyquil Glazed or a Bacon Maple Bar?
不過，要到了1800 年代，麵糰堅果才變成有洞的甜甜圈。一位名叫漢森葛雷格瑞的船長將麵糰堅果在中間挖一個洞，這樣才能將它們套在舵輪的把柄上，在漫長的輪班掌舵時，餓了就拿起來吃。後來他請母親在製作麵糰堅果時，都在中間挖個洞，而且這樣會更好吃─中間有洞，烹調時受熱會更均勻─於是新的食譜很快傳開。到了第一次世界大戰時，甜甜圈已經變成一種受歡迎的甜點，於是暱稱為「甜甜圈女孩」的救世軍志工，為駐法國的美軍發放咖啡和甜甜圈，讓他們回味家鄉的味道。自動甜甜圈製造機在1920 年代發明後，甜甜圈變成大家都能買得起的日常零食。Dunkin’ Donuts、KrispyKreme 和Mister Donut 一類的甜甜圈連鎖店在 1940 和1950年代拓展到全美各地，現在美國人一年可以吃掉一百億個甜甜圈！
oily (a.) 油膩的，多油的
imaginable (a.) 想像得到的
boutique (n.) 精品，時裝店
maple (n.) 楓樹，楓木，楓糖味
本文取材自《開口吃遍USA 美國食用英語：EZ TALK總編嚴選特刊》