When I was a student here 17 years ago, I studied LG social marketing with professor Kash Rangan, and one of the many examples Kash used to explain the concept of social marketing was the lack of organ 1)donors in this country, which kills 18 people every single day. Earlier this month, Facebook launched a tool to support organ donations, something that stems directly from Kash’s work.
It used to be that in order to reach more people than you could talk to in a day, you had to be rich and famous and powerful, but that’s not true today. Now ordinary people have a voice, not just those of us lucky to go to HBS, but anyone with access to Facebook, Twitter, a mobile phone. This is 2)disrupting traditional power structures and leveling traditional 3)hierarchy. Voice and power are shifting from 4)institutions to individuals.
1.donor (n.) 捐贈者，donation 即「捐獻，捐款」 The country urgently needs more blood donors.
2.disrupt (v.) 使瓦解，使混亂，使中斷 A group of protesters tried to disrupt the conference.
3.hierarchy (n.) 等級制度，統治集團 (a.) hierarchical He swiftly rose to the top of the company hierarchy.
4.institution (n.) 機構 This university is the largest educational institution in the country.
5.MBA (n.) 企業管理碩士，即 master of business administration How many MBA programs are you applying to?
6.spreadsheet (n.) 試算表 Do you know how to use Excel spreadsheets?
Career Paths Are Shifting職涯發展正在改變
As the world becomes more connected and less 3)hierarchical, traditional career paths are shifting as well. In 2001, I moved out to Silicon Valley to try finding a job. My timing wasn’t really that good. The LG bubble had crashed. After a while I had a few offers and I had to make a decision. I’m 5)MBA trained, so I made a 6)spreadsheet. One of the jobs on that sheet was to become Google’s first business unit general manager, which sounds good now, but at the time no one thought consumer Internet companies could ever make money. So I sat down with Eric Schmidt, who had just become the CEO, and I showed him the spreadsheet and I said, “This job meets none of my criteria.” He looked at me and said, “Don’t be an idiot.” And then he said, “Get on a rocket ship.” When companies are growing quickly and they are having a lot of impact, careers take care of themselves.
隨著全球網路普及率越高、等級制度消退，傳統的職涯發展也跟著改變。二〇〇一年，我搬到矽谷找工作。但時間點不太好，遇到了網路泡沫破滅。找了一段時間，有幾家提出工作機會，所以我必須做出決定了。我受過企業管理訓練，因此我列出了一份試算表。表格上的其中一項工作是擔任 Google 公司的第一位業務部經理，那份工作現在聽起來很棒，但在當時，沒有人認為消費者網路公司會賺錢。於是我和艾立克史密特坐下來談，他那時剛剛擔任執行長，我給他看我的試算表，我說：「這份工作似乎不符合我的標準。」他看了看我說：「別傻了。」然後他說：「有火箭就坐上去。」當公司迅速成長，並帶來大量效應時，事業自然會水到渠成。
The No. 1 impediment to women succeeding in the workforce is now in the home.
Sheryl Sandberg 雪柔桑伯格
一九六九年生於美國華盛頓特區，現任 Facebook 營運長，同時為首位女性董事會成員。她畢業於哈佛商學院，曾任職於麥肯錫公司、美國財政部及 Google，二〇〇八年進入 Facebook,讓 該公司「從一個很酷的網站，變成一個獲利的公司」。
雪柔桑伯格長期關注女性職場問題，二〇一〇年，她在 TED 以「為什麼太少女性成為領導者」Why we have too few women leaders 發表演說；二〇一一年被《富比世》雜誌選入百大最具影響力女性(100 Most Powerful Women)第五名；二〇一二年進入 Facebook 董事會；二〇一三年出版女權主義商管書籍 Lean In。
Why Work for a 23-year-old?
About 6 and half years later, when I was leaving Google, I LG took that advice to heart. I was offered CEO jobs at a bunch of companies, but I went to Facebook as 1)COO. At the time people said, “Why are you going to work for a 23-year-old?” The traditional 2)metaphor for careers is a ladder, but I no longer think that metaphor holds. It doesn’t make sense in a less hierarchical world.
大約六年半後，我要離開 Google 時，我將他的建議放在心上。有一堆公司請我當執行長，但我選擇到 Facebook 公司擔任營運長。當時大家都問我：「妳為什麼要去幫一個二十三歲的年輕人工作？」晉升階梯是職涯發展的傳統比喻，但我不再認為這種比喻現在還適用。在一個階級制度日漸消弭的世界中，這種比喻不再有意義。
Careers are a jungle gym, not a ladder.
Build Your Skills, Not Your Résumé 累積技能，而非履歷
As you start your post-HBS career, look for opportunities, look for growth, look for impact. Build your skills, not your résumé. Evaluate what you can do, not the title they’re going to give you. Don’t plan too much, and don’t expect a direct climb. If I had 3)mapped out my career when I was sitting where you are, I would have missed my career.
You are entering a different business world than I entered. As traditional structures are breaking down, leadership has to 4)evolve as well—from hierarchy to shared responsibility, from command and control to listening and guiding. Your strength will come from building trust and earning respect. You’re going to need talent, skill, and imagination and vision, but more than anything else, you’re going to need the ability to communicate 5)authentically, to speak so that you inspire the people around you and to listen so that you continue to learn each and every day on the job.
1.COO (n.) 營運長，即 chief operating officer The company is thinking of bringing in a new COO.
2.metaphor (n.) 隱喻，象徵 Chess is often used as a metaphor for war.
3.map out (phr.) 安排，策劃 His future was mapped out for him by his parents.
4.evolve (v.) 演變，演化 Is it true that humans evolved from apes?
5.authentically (adv.) 真實地，真正地 The novel authentically portrays wartime London.
6.setup (n.) (事物的)安排，組織，結構，體制 How do you like my home office setup?
7.burst out (phr.) 突然開始(說、笑、哭) I burst out laughing when I saw his new haircut.
8.workforce (n.) 勞動力，勞動人口 Millions left the workforce during the recession.
Speak and Hear the Truth 說真話，聽真相
If you watch young children, you’ll immediately notice how honest they are. As adults, we are never this honest, and that’s not a bad thing. But it’s not always a good thing either—because all of us, and especially leaders, need to speak and hear the truth. The workplace is an especially difficult place for anyone to tell the truth, because no matter how flat we want our organizations to be, all organizations have some form of hierarchy. This is not a 6)setup for honesty.
Last year Mark decided to learn Chinese, and as part of studying, he would spend an hour or so each week with some of our employees who were native Chinese speakers. One day, one of them was trying to tell him something about her manager, so she said this long sentence and he said “Simpler please.” And then she said it again and he said, “No, I still don’t understand, simpler please.” Finally, she 7)burst out, “My manager is bad.” Simple and clear and very important for him to know. People rarely speak this clearly in the 8)workforce or in life.
I’m not telling women to be like men. I’m telling us to evaluate what men and women do in the workforce and at home without the gender bias.
When I first started at Google, I had a team of four people and it was really important to me that I interview everyone—being part of my team meant I had to know you. When the team had gotten to 100 people, I realized it was taking longer to schedule my interviews, so one day at my meeting of just my 1)direct reports, I said maybe I should stop interviewing, fully expecting them to jump in and say, “No, your interviews are a critical part of the process.” They applauded.
我開始在 Google 工作時，我的團隊有四人，對我來說，與每一個人面談是非常重要的—因為我覺得，既然是我團隊的一份子，我就必須了解你。當團隊增加到一百人時，我發現安排面談行程就要花不少時間。所以，某天跟直屬員工開會時，我說，也許我該停止面談，我以為他們會立刻回答：「不行，和妳面談是非常重要的程序。」結果他們全體鼓掌。
I was embarrassed, then I was angry. Why didn’t they tell me I was a 2)bottleneck? Then I realized that if they hadn’t told me, that was my fault. I hadn’t been open enough to tell them I wanted that 3)feedback, and I would have to change that going forward.
How Will You Lead?你將如何領導?
As you graduate today, ask yourself, “How will you lead?” Will you use simple and clear language? Will you seek out honesty? When you get honesty back, will you react with anger or with gratitude? As we strive to be more authentic in our communication, we should also strive to be more authentic in a broader sense.
Motivation comes from working on things we care about, but it also comes from working with people we care about. And in order to care about someone, you have to know them. You have to know what they love and hate, what they feel, not just what they think. If you want to win GM hearts and minds, you have to lead with your heart as well as your mind.